Science

Science Staff

Mr G Wright

Curriculum Leader of Science

Mr M Brown

Science

Mrs S Lightfoot

Science

Mr P Rose

Science

Mr S Smith

Science

Year 7

Year 7

Introduction to Science

An introduction unit will cover health and safety in the laboratory, laboratory apparatus and the scientific method.

Working Scientifically

  • understand that scientific methods and theories develop as earlier explanations are modified to take account of new evidence and ideas, together with the importance of publishing results and peer review
  • ask questions and develop a line of enquiry based on observations of the real world, alongside prior knowledge and experience
  • make predictions using scientific knowledge and understanding
  • select, plan and carry out the most appropriate types of scientific enquiries to test predictions, including identifying independent, dependent and control variables, where appropriate.

Year 7 Biology

B1: Cells, Tissues, Organs & Systems

  • cells as the fundamental unit of living organisms, including how to observe, interpret and record cell structure using a light microscope
  • the functions of the cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, vacuole, mitochondria and chloroplasts
  • the similarities and differences between plant and animal cells
  • the hierarchical organisation of multicellular organisms: from cells to tissues to organs tosystems to organisms.

Working Scientifically

  • use appropriate techniques, apparatus, and materials during fieldwork and laboratory work, paying attention to health and safety (using a light microscope and preparing light microscope slides).

 B2: Sexual reproduction

  • reproduction in humans (as an example of a mammal), including the structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems, menstrual cycle (without details of hormones), gametes, fertilisation, gestation and birth, to include the effect of maternal lifestyle on the foetus through the placenta.
  • reproduction in plants, including flower structure, wind and insect pollination, fertilisation, seed and fruit formation and dispersal, including quantitative investigation of some dispersal mechanisms.

 Working Scientifically

  • understand that scientific methods and theories develop as earlier explanations are modified to take account of new evidence and ideas, together with the importance of publishing results and peer review
  •  ask questions and develop a line of enquiry based on observations of the real world, alongside prior knowledge and experience
  •  make predictions using scientific knowledge and understanding
  •  select, plan and carry out the most appropriate types of scientific enquiries to test predictions, including identifying independent, dependent and control variables, where appropriate.

 B3: Muscles and bones (also Y8 2017)

  • the structure and functions of the human skeleton, to include support, protection, movement and making blood cells
  • biomechanics - the interaction between skeleton and muscles, including the measurement of force exerted by different muscles
  •  the function of muscles and examples of antagonistic muscles

 Working Scientifically

  • understand that scientific methods and theories develop as earlier explanations are modified to take account of new evidence and ideas, together with the importance of publishing results and peer review
  • ask questions and develop a line of enquiry based on observations of the real world, alongside prior knowledge and experience

 Year 7 Chemistry

C1: Mixtures and separation

  • mixtures, including suspensions, colloids and solutions
  • simple techniques for separating mixtures: filtration, evaporation, evaporation, distillation and chromatography

 Working Scientifically

  • use appropriate techniques, apparatus, and materials during fieldwork and laboratory work, paying attention to health and safety

 This unit also focuses on the aim to equip students with the scientific knowledge required to understand the uses and implications of science, today and for the future.

C2: Acids and alkalis

  • representing chemical reactions using formulae and using equations
  • defining acids and alkalis in terms of neutralisation reactions
  • the pH scale for measuring acidity/alkalinity; and indicators
  • reactions of acids with alkalis to produce a salt plus water

Working Scientifically

  • evaluate risks

C3: The particle model

  • the properties of the different states of matter (solid, liquid and gas) in terms of the particle model
  • Air pressure
  • Brownian motion in gases

Working Scientifically

  • understand that scientific methods and theories develop as earlier explanations are modified to take account of new evidence and ideas, together with the importance of publishing results and peer review
  • make predictions using scientific knowledge and understanding
  • present observations and data using appropriate methods, including tables and graphs

Year 7 Physics

P1: Energy

  •  comparing energy values of different foods (from labels) (kJ)
  •  energy transfers and stores
  •  fuels and other energy resources

 

Working Scientifically

  • using ratios and percentages to compare experimental results

 P2: Current Electricity

  • electric current, measured in amperes, in circuits, series and parallel circuits and the domestic ring main
  • current as flow of charge
  • differences in resistance between conducting and insulating components
  • plugs and fuses

Working Scientifically

  • using physical models to help to explain phenomena
  • explaining why models are used

 P3: Forces

  • forces as pushes or pulls, arising from the interaction between two objects
  • contact and non-contact forces
  • weight and mass
  • forces measured in newtons, measurements of stretch or compression as force is changed
  • force-extension linear relation; Hooke's law as a special case
  • pressure measured by ratio of force over area
  • balanced and unbalanced forces

Working Scientifically

• understand and use SI units and IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) chemical nomenclature.

Year 8

Year 8 Biology

B4: Food and digestion

  •  content of a healthy human diet: carbohydrates, lipids (fats and oils), proteins, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and water, and why each is needed (food tests to be done in year 9 GCSE;
  •   iodine test for starch and Benedict's test for reducing sugar to be used in the investigation of the action of amylase)
  •   the tissues and organs of the digestive system, including adaptations to function and how the digestive system digests food (enzymes simply as biological catalysts)
  •  the role of diffusion in the movement of materials in and between cells

 

Working Scientifically

  • apply mathematical concepts and calculate results; calculate surface area including estimating the surface area of cells in micrometr
  • investigate the action of amylase on starch using visking tubing as a model gut.

B5: Breathing and Lung Disease

  •  the structure and functions of the gas exchange system in humans, including adaptations to function
  •  the mechanism of breathing to move air in and out of the lungs, using a pressure model to explain the movement of gases, including simple measurements of lung volume
  •  the role of diffusion in gas exchange
  •  the impact of exercise, asthma and smoking on the breathing system on the human gas exchange system
    (Aerobic and anaerobic respiration is covered in detail in year 9 GCSE)

Working Scientifically

  • investigate lung capacity and peak flow
  • apply mathematical concepts and calculate results

Year 8 Chemistry

C4: Atoms, elements and compounds

  • differences between atoms, elements and compounds
  • chemical symbols and formulae for elements and compounds
  •  the varying physical and chemical properties of different element
  •  a simple (Dalton) atomic model
  •  chemical reactions as the rearrangement of atoms
  •  representing chemical reactions using formulae and using equations
  •  the principles underpinning the Mendeleev Periodic Table

Working Scientifically

  • investigate formation of compounds
  • present observations and data using appropriate methods, including tables and graphs understand and use SI units and IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) chemical nomenclature

C5: Combustion

  • combustion of fuels
  • oxidation reactions
  • conservation of mass in chemical reactions
  • representing chemical reactions using formulae and using equations
  • air pollution resulting from combustion and its control
  • the production of carbon dioxide by human activity and the impact on climate

 Working Scientifically

  •  investigate the products of combustion
  •   investigate the conservation of mass using oxidation of magnesium
  •   select, plan and carry out the most appropriate types of scientific enquiries to test predictions, including identifying independent, dependent and control variables, where appropriate

 C6: Metals

  • representing chemical reactions using formulae and using equations
  •  the properties of metals and non-metals
  •  rusting and corrosion
  •  reaction of metals with water
  •  the order of metals and carbon in the reactivity series
  • reactions of acids with metals to produce a salt plus hydrogen
  • pure metals and alloys
  • the identification of pure substances

Working Scientifically

  • make and record observations and measurements using a range of methods for different investigations; evaluate the reliability of methods and suggest possible improvements

 

C7: Rocks

  • the composition of the Earth
  • the structure of the Earth
  • the rock cycle and the formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
  • theEarth as a source of limited resources and the efficacy of recycling
  • the carbon cycle
  • the composition of the atmosphere
  • the production of carbon dioxide by human activity and the impact on climate

Working Scientifically

·         understand that scientific methods and theories develop as earlier explanations are modified to take account of new evidence and ideas, together with the importance of publishing results and peer review

Year 8 Physics

P4 Sound

  • waves on water as undulations which travel through water with transverse motion; these waves can be reflected, and add or cancel- superposition
  • frequencies of sound waves, measured in hertz (Hz); echoes, reflection and absorption of sound
  • sound needs a medium to travel, the speed of sound in air, in water, in solids
  • sound produced by vibrations of objects, in loud speakers, detected by their effects on microphone diaphragm and the ear drum
  • sound waves are longitudinal
  • auditory range of humans and animals
  • pressure waves carrying energy, use for cleaning and physiotherapy by ultra-sound; waves transferring information for conversion to electrical signals by microphone

Working Scientifically

  • drawing and interpreting line graphs
  • drawing and interpreting scatter graphs

P5: Light

  •  the similarities and differences between light waves and waves in matter
  •  light waves travelling through a vacuum; speed of light
  •  the transmission of light through materials: absorption, diffuse scattering and specular reflection at a surface
  • use of ray model to explain imaging in mirrors, the pinhole camera, the refraction of light and action of convex lens in focusing (qualitative)
  • light transferring energy from source to absorber leading to chemical and electrical effects
  • photo-sensitive material in the retina and in cameras
  • colours and the different frequencies of light, white light and prisms (qualitative only)
  • differential colour effects in absorption and diffuse reflection.

 Working Scientifically

  • make and record observations and measurements using a range of methods for different investigations

 P6: Space

  • gravity forces between Earth and Moon, and between Earth and Sun (qualitative only)
  • different on other planets and stars
  • gravity force, weight = mass x gravitational field strength (g)
  • on Earth g= 10N/kg
  • our Sun as a star, other stars in our galaxy, other galaxies
  • the seasons and the Earth's tilt
  • day length at different times of year, in different hemispheres
  • the light year as a unit of astronomical distance

Working Scientifically

  • apply mathematical concepts and calculate results
  •  use and derive simple equations and carry out appropriate calculations
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Year 9

Year 9 students will start AQA GCSE topics. Aspects of the Key Stage 3 National Curriculum not covered in years 7 and 8 will be incorporated into year 9 units taught at GCSE standard.

 Scientific Skills Unit

This unit covers experimental planning, risk assessment, data presentation, analysis and evaluation through a range of contexts.

 Year 9 Biology

B6 Inheritance (year 8 in 2018)

  • heredity as the process by which genetic information is transmitted from one generation to the next
  • a simple model of chromosomes, genes and DNA in heredity, including the part played by Watson, Crick, Wilkins and Franklin in the development of the DNA model
  • differences between species
  •  the variation between individuals within a species being continuous or discontinuous, to include measurement and graphical representation of variation
  • the variation between species and between individuals of the same species means some organisms compete more successfully, which can drive adaptation
  • changes in the environment may leave individuals within a species, and some entire species, less well adapted to compete successfully and reproduce, which in turn may lead to extinction
  • the importance of maintaining biodiversity and the use of gene banks to preserve hereditary material
  • the interdependence of organisms in an ecosystem, including food webs
  • selective breeding

 Working Scientifically

  • apply mathematical concepts and calculate results

 Y9 Biology GCSE

 4.4 Bioenergetics

  • Photosynthetic reaction
  • Rate of photosynthesis
  • Uses of glucose
  • Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
  • Response to exercise
  • Metabolism

 4.1 Cell Biology

  • Eukaryotes and prokaryotes
  • Animal and plant cell structure
  • Microscopy
  • Cell Specialisation
  •  Cell differentiation
  • Culturing microbes (Yr10 separate Biology GCSE)
  • Stem cells (Yr10)
  • Cell division (Yr10)
  • Transport in cells: diffusion, osmosis and active transport (Yr10)

 Y9 Chemistry GCSE

 4.1  Atomic structure and the periodic table (Mr. Brown’s lessons)

 4.1.1        A simple model of the atom, symbols, relative atomic mass, electronic charge and isotopes

  • Atoms, elements and compounds
  • Mixtures
  • The development of the model of the atom
  • Relative electrical charges of subatomic particles
  • Size and mass of atoms
  • Relative atomic mass
  • Electronic structure

 4.1.2        The periodic table

  • Development of the periodic table
  • Metals and non-metals
  • Group 0 (the noble gases)
  • Group 1 (the alkali metals)
  • Group 7 (the halogens)
  • Properties of transition metals

 4.4 Chemical changes (Mr. Wright’s lessons)

4.4.1 Reactivity of metals

  • Metal oxides
  • The reactivity series
  • Extraction of metals and reduction
  • Oxidation and reduction in terms of electrons

4.4.2 Reactions of acids

  • Reactions of acids with metals
  • Neutralisation of acids and salt production
  • Soluble salts
  • The pH scale and neutralisation
  • Strong and weak acids
  • Titrations (Year 10)
  • Electrolysis (Year 10)

 Y9 Physics GCSE

 4.1 Energy

 4.1.1 Energy changes in a system, and the ways energy is stored before and after such changes

  • Energy stores and systems
  • Changes in energy
  • Energy changes in systems
  • Power

 4.1.3        Conservation and dissipation of energy

  • Energy transfers in a system
  • Efficiency

4.1.4        National and global energy resources

4.5  Forces

4.5.1 Forces and their interactions

  • Scalar and vector quantities
  • Contact and non-contact forces
  • Gravity
  • Resultant forces

4.5.2 Work done and energy transfer

  • Forces and elasticity
  • Moments, levers and gears (separate physics GCSE only)

4.5.5 Pressure and pressure differences in fluids (physics only)

  • Pressure in a fluid
  • Atmospheric pressure

4.5.6 Forces and motion

  • Describing motion along a line
  • Distance and displacement
  • Speed
  • Velocity
  • The distance–time relationship
  • Acceleration

4.5.6.2 Forces, accelerations and Newton’s Laws of motion

  • Newton’s first law
  • Newton’s second law
  • Newton’s third law

4.5.6.3 Forces and braking

  • Stopping distances
  • Reaction time
  • Factors affecting braking distance

4.5.7 Momentum

  • Momentum is a property of moving objects
  • Conservation of momentum
  • Changes in momentum (separate physics GCSE only)

Key Stage 4 - GCSE

Key Stage 4 - GCSE

We offer separate science GCSEs and a double award GCSE in Combined Science following the AQA courses for which more details, including specifications, can be found at www.aqa.org.uk. Teaching of the GCSE courses starts in Year 9.

From Year 10 students are placed in one of three sets depending on student and parent/carer preferences, reviewed in the light of progress and expected attainment.  When setting students, we take account of assessments throughout this year, effort and application (particularly to homework), and performance in the Year 9 examinations. 

All external examinations are in the summer of Year 11. There is no longer any controlled assessment. Instead, students carry out a number of required practical activities. Questions in the written exams draw on the knowledge and understanding students have gained by carrying out the practical activities. These questions count for at least 15% of the overall marks for each qualification. Many of the questions also focus on investigative skills and how well students can apply what they know to practical situations often in novel contexts.

GCSE Separate Sciences in Biology, Chemistry and Physics

One set follows GCSE courses studying for three separate GCSEs in Biology, Chemistry and Physics. We consider this option the best available preparation for progression to pure science A-level courses in Year 12.  It is, however, a challenging option and students should be prepared for a high pace and will be expected to carry out significant private study.  Extra lessons outside of normal curriculum time may sometimes be required and will be regarded as compulsory.  All students are expected to take higher tier papers.

GCSE Double Award in Combined Science

Two groups follow this course which is linear, i.e. all examinations will be at the end of Year 11. There are six papers: two Biology, two Chemistry and two Physics. Students may be entered for either higher tier or foundation tier papers. Much of the content is identical to the separate science courses but this qualification will be a double award, i.e. students will gain two (identical) GCSE grades.

Key Stage 5 - 'A' Level

BIOLOGY

 
Examination Board:   OCR
 
AS outline
 
The AS specification has 3 units:
 
Unit 1: Cells, Exchange and Transport
 
In this unit, you will study the role of membranes as a fundamental part of the cell and how the structure of the cell surface membrane allows cells to communicate with each other and how scientists increasingly make use of membrane-bound receptors as sites for the action of medicinal drugs.
 
You will also study cell division and how stem cells are modified to produce many difference types of specialised cell and how the use of stem cells has huge potential in medicine.  You will understand the importance of co-operation between cells, tissues, organs and organ systems and make particular study of exchange surfaces and breathing and transport systems in animals and plants.
 
Assessment
11/4 hour examination in January
 
 
Unit 2: Molecules, Biodiversity, Food and Health
 
In this unit you will study the structure and function of important biological molecules, diet, food production and the consequences for health of an unbalanced diet.  A study is also made of the role of pathogens, parasites and environmental factors in the development of disease and mammalian defence against infectious disease.
 
You will also study how evolution has generated a very wide range of organisms and how all organisms share a common ancestry that allows them to be classified.  You will appreciate the increasing recognition of the need to maintain biodiversity.
 
Assessment
11/2 hour examination in the summer
 
Unit 3: Practical Skills in Biology
 
Internally assessed practical OCR-set assessments
 
 
A2 Units
 
 
Unit 4: Communications, Homeostatis and Energy
 
This unit examines the nervous, endocrine and excretory systems of the body.  You will also study the biochemistry of photosynthesis and respiration.
 
Assessment
11/4 hour paper in January
 
Unit 5: Control, Genomes and Environment
 
This unit involves a study of variation and genetics and applications of biotechnology and gene technologies.  You will also study ecology, plant and animal responses and animal behaviour.
 
Assessment
1 hour 45 minutes paper in the summer
 
Unit 6: Practical Skills in Biology 2
 
Internally assessed practical OCR-set assessments
 
 
Important Note
Some of the practical fieldwork for this course will be carried out as part of a residential fieldtrip.  Students should be aware that there will be a cost implication.
 
For further details:
Pick up a course booklet from Mr G Wright and discuss whether the course is suitable for you.
 
Visit the OCR site here for more information
 
 
APPLIED SCIENCE

 
OCR Applied Science
 
This is a broad-based qualification in Applied Science that will give a general vocational introduction to science. There are many opportunities for students to actively experience the scientific environment through work place visits, case studies and research. Students will be expected to play an active part in their own learning through research, completion of practical procedures, work-placed visits and the production of portfolio evidence.
 
Entry Requirements
 
Students will have a minimum of a Grade C in GCSE Science and Additional Science or a Merit in a First Diploma in Applied Science and a minimum of a GCSE Grade C in English and Mathematics.
 
Assessment
 
At AS, two units are assessed by portfolio evidence and one unit is externally examined by written examination. The A2 course follows a similar pattern. Assessment is 67% portfolio so students who are motivated to complete assignments to deadlines would be expected to be successful. Those who lack organisational skills and commitment are unlikely to achieve success.
 
Progression to Further Qualifications
 
Candidates who achieve this qualification may be prepared to enter a variety of HND or degree level courses in science-related subjects. We would recommend that students considering courses in, e.g. medicine, dentistry, veterinary science and pure sciences, should normally take pure science A Levels. We strongly recommend that all students discuss plans with sixth form tutors and check the entry requirements of courses they may be interested in before embarking on study at AS Level.
 
A Summary of the Specification
 
AS Course
Three unit Advanced Subsidiary GCE: Candidates take Units 1, 2 and 3.
           
Unit 1 Science at Work
This AS level unit is mandatory and is internally assessed by portfolio evidence.
 
This unit will give you the opportunity to investigate the importance of science, and the people involved, in a wide range of organisations. It will include workplace visits and you will have the opportunity to investigate the science really used, the type of work actually carried out and to carry out some standard procedures. You will study four science based organisations, one of which is done in depth. Last year students studied Blackburn Rovers Football Club in depth and also studied the work of a brewery, Smithkline-Beecham and a pharmacist. Students will also be expected to choose an organisation to study which should include a site visit.
 
Two practical procedures are completed in this unit set in a vocational context, calculations made using the data which must be processed and evaluated. Last year, for example, students made aspirin and determined its purity.
 
Unit 2 Analysis at Work
This AS level unit is mandatory and is internally assessed by portfolio evidence.
 
By studying this unit, you will understand the principles of analytical techniques used in forensic, pathology and research laboratories, and also in the chemical and energy industries.
 
Your portfolio evidence will include:
  • a study of one organisation’s energy policy  including energy efficiency and environmental impact;
  • an in-depth study of a chosen method of producing electricity;
  • evidence that you have safely completed four practical analyses and appropriately recorded, processed and evaluated the data.
 
Unit 3 Monitoring the Activity of the Human Body
This AS level unit is mandatory and is externally assessed by examination.
 
You will learn how cells obtain energy from respiration, and how this process is linked to the activity of the body as a whole, and particularly the role the circulatory and respiratory systems play in the transfer of energy. You will learn about some of the substances carried by the blood, and how the levels of these substances vary and are regulated. For example you will study methods of testing for blood sugar, drugs and alcohol and how antibodies for HIV or hepatitis are detected. You will apply knowledge of structure and function of the circulatory and respiratory systems and study methods of taking physiological measurements and their uses in medical and sports science. For example, you will study some methods of measuring lung function and how ECG traces can give information about the heart. You will study how imaging methods such as ultrasound, X-rays, MRI and CAT scans work and will gain an understanding of regulations and ethical issues relating to monitoring diagnosis and treatments.
           
A2 Course
At A2, students will complete an extended research project and take an examination covering the applications of what they have learnt throughout the course about sampling, testing and processing. One further optional unit is covered, the choice of which will be determined by the expertise of the member of staff involved in consultation with students.
 
Last year, students studied Unit 14: Ecology and Managing the Environment.  Much of the practical work and teaching for this unit was carried out on a residential fieldtrip.  Students should be aware that there will be a cost implication if this unit is followed. 
 
For further details including a course booklet, students should see Mr G Wright.  Full details of the course may be found here.